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Nanosystems, Eric Drexler. A summary.

Nanosystems, Eric Drexler. A summary.

Nanosystems by Eric Drexler Brief summary of the book
Nanosystems: Machinery, Manufacturing and Molecular Computing
by Eric Drexler.
Original title: Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation.

Molecular manufacturing should be capable of developing nanoscale mechanical systems with incredible performance. This book explains how, using physics and chemistry as a basis, these nanosystems can efficiently build products that are large, have atomic precision and diamond strength, include very powerful computers (10 million MIPS per milliwatt) as well as very powerful motors (a megawatt per cubic millimeter).

Part One: Physical Principles

Chapter 2: Classical Magnitudes and Laws of Scale

Many nanoscale properties can be predicted through Physics. Electromagnetism doesn't work, but electrostatistics works very well. Causes more slack, but not too much. Cooling small systems is easy. Very small things move much faster.Many nanoscale properties can be predicted through Physics. Electromagnetism doesn't work, but electrostatistics works very well. Very small things move much faster.Chapter 3: Potential Energy SurfacesChemical reactions are more or less predictable. The mechanical properties can be derived from the properties of the chemical bond. Surfaces are sticky and soft.Chapter 4: Molecular DynamicsAtomic systems move and shift. Different configurations / postures of the systems have different energies. A configuration that requires a lot of energy (relative to thermal noise) can form a barrier between states; between barriers (in potential wells), the system can assume any configuration, and the probability of each can be calculated.Chapter 5: Positional UncertaintyEstimations can be made on things like ananoscale gas rods, springs, and pistons, taking into account the combined effects of quantum chemistry and thermal noise. For most purposes, positional uncertainty is a simple function of temperature and stiffness.Chapter 6: Transitions, Errors and DamagesIf the height of the barriers between potential wells is known, the probability of crossing them (that is, of causing a reaction or making an error) can be calculated using a function of temperature and time. Positioning errors can be calculated. Strong covalent bonds do not usually break at room temperature overnight. In a well-designed system, the most significant damages will be those caused by background radiation - a few percentages per year per cubic micron.Chapter 7: Energy DissipationThere are many ways to thermalize energy. These can be calculated. They cause a lag in the bearings and other moving components, and the dissipated energy is usually proportional to the speed of the system.Chapter 8: MechanosynthesisMecanosynthesis has many advantages over other solution phase synthesis, and should have the same variety of products. You can apply positional control to select between similar reaction sites and keep reactive molecules isolated. There are quite a few rigid reactive molecules that serve for the mechanochemistry of the vacuum phase. Various reactions are proposed that form diamonds.Part Two: Components and SystemsChapter 9: Nanoscale Structural ComponentsEven small diamantoid bars and housings can demonstrate useful stiffness and a well-defined surface. Shape and size can be controlled with a high degree of precision by substituting atoms, and this offers us an enormous amount of possibilities for part design.Chapter 10: Mobile Interfaces and Moving PartsMoving parts on the atomic scale have bumps, but thermal noise can pass through these bumps (low energy barriers), involving zero static friction at normal temperature. Dynamic friction remains a debated topic (Chapter 7). Atoms can act as good running teeth. Molecular models are demonstrated for mechanisms including a planetary gait. Topics such as ratchets, uneven sliding surfaces, adhesive interfaces, and other useful structures are raised.Moving parts on the atomic scale have bumps, but thermal noise can pass through these bumps (low energy barriers), involving zero static friction at normal temperature. Topics such as ratchets, uneven sliding surfaces, adhesive interfaces, and other useful structures are raised.The chapter deals with measuring devices, harmonic and toroidal systems, fluids, closures, pumps, fractal cooling (extracting 105 W from 1 cm3), and electrostatics (1017 W / m3 power density at> 99% efficiency).Chapter 12: Nanomechanical Computing SystemsIt deals with mechanical logic gates, registers, random logic, reversible logic, and long-range data transmission. The calculations imply a viability of 106-interlock 1-GHz CPUs (comparable to 2000 microprocessors) that occupy <1 cubic micron and use 60nW. (This is a lower limit and can presumably be improved)Chapter 13: Classification, Processing and Assembly (or Assemblers) of MoleculesDescribes the classification of rotors to import molecules and purify the input stream; conveyors; linking sites; molecular mills paramechanochemistry repeated (and power generation); conditional meeting mechanisms; a robot arm stiff enough to perform mechanochemistry at room temperature with a range of 100-nm.Chapter 14: Molecular Manufacturing Systems Tratatemas related to factory design issues on the table: the union of blocks at an intermediate scale; the factory design system; the shell systemshell) and distribution of the product of the factories; redundancy; productivity calculations (able to reach your weight in one hour). This will be much better in many ways than conventional manufacturing. It also addresses the concepts of languages ‚Äč‚Äčthat describe shapes and design collectors.Third Part: Implementation StrategiesChapter 15: Macromolecular EngineeringCells implement many mechanisms: struts, struts, bearings, actuators / motors etc. Biopolymer design is easier than protein folding problem. The synthesis of solutions could suppose the start of dry systems of molecular nanotechnology. The use of scanning probe microscopes (SPM) for the manufacture and projection of images.Chapter 16: Pathways to Molecular ManufacturingThere are many ways; you could use the strings backwards to find a viable route. Simple actuators and manipulators are described, as well as molecular manipulation, solution phase intermediates, and ways to reduce development time.Appendix A: Methodology Issues in Applied Theoretical Science Even with incomplete data, reliable and useful numbers can be obtained to make reliable predictions.Appendix B: Related ResearchMany fields feed into the field of molecular nanotechnology, but little specific work has been done so far.


Video: The next step in nanotechnology. George Tulevski (June 2021).